The History of Portraiture Ancient Portraiture Portrait painting can be considered as public or private art. In ancient Mediterranean civilizations, like those of Egypt, Greece and Rome, and Byzantium, portraiture was mainly a public art form, or a type of funerary art for Gods, Emperors, Kings, and Popes.
In history[ edit ] John Wilmot, the most infamous of the Restoration rakes The defining period of the rake was at the court of Charles II in the late seventeenth century. Many of them were inveterate gamblers and brawlers.
Some were also duelists, but not to the approval of King Charles.
Highlights of their careers include Sedley and the Earl of Dorset preaching naked to a crowd from an alehouse balcony in Covent Gardenas they simulated sex with each other, and the lowlight was Buckingham's killing of Francis Talbot, 11th Earl of Shrewsbury in a duel for the latter's wife.
These included Francis Dashwood and John Wilkes. The rake in restoration comedy[ edit ] On the whole, rakes may be subdivided into the penitent and persistent ones, the first being reformed by the heroine, the latter pursuing their immoral conduct.
However, only the degree of wit brings the rakish gentleman, the Truewit, closer to the satiric norm, whereas Falsewits are always exploded in the satiric scene. The motivation of a rake to change his libertinistic ways is either hypocritical falsewits or honest truewits.
In other words, penitent rakes among the falsewits only abandon their way of life for financial reasons, while penitent truewits ever so often succumb to the charms of the witty heroine and, at least, go through the motions of vowing constancy.
Another typology distinguishes between the "polite rake" and the "debauch", using criteria of social class and style. In this case, the young, witty, and well-bred male character, who dominates the drawing roomsis in sharp contrast to a contemptible debauch, who indulges in fornication, alcoholism, and hypocrisy.
Here, the rake falls into any one of three categories: The extravagant rake is characterised by anti-normative conduct throughout, even though he finally settles down in matrimony.
The extravagant rake is as promiscuous and impulsive as he is wild and frivolous, and he finally finds his match in an equally extravagant and witty heroine. But he is never a comic fool. The vicious rake is invariably presented as a despicable, if wealthy person, who thrives on scheming and intrigue.
Finally, the philosophical rake, the most attractive libertine figure, is characterised by self-control and refined behaviour as well as by a capacity for manipulating others. His pronounced libertinistic leanings are not supposed to contribute anything to the comic development of the plot.
Rather, his libertinism is serious, thus reflecting the philosophical principles of the pleasure-seeking, cynical Court Wits. The reform of the ordinary rakish gentleman is the common pattern for the ending of the play. Similarly, extravagant rakes enter into marriage.
Although Etherege's Dorimant is "tamed" by Harriet, his conversion at the end is rather doubtful. Similarly, Wycherley's Horner is not punished satirically. It has been pointed out that the views of the philosophical libertine were strongly influenced by the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes.
Drydenfor one, drew on Hobbesian ideas in his tragedies but these ideas are internalised by villains only. In their ideal of life, the libertines of this order may almost be compared to the genius of a somewhat later time: It is, above all, the emotional distance from the objects of his desire as well as from the havoc he creates, which renders the persistent rake so frightening.
Criticism of the libertine was heard not only in the s when sex comedies were en vogue but also earlier, whenever the male partner of the gay couple was blamed for having indulged in immoral behaviour.
One major counter-argument was the call for poetic justice. Thomas Shadwell and Dryden, for example, discussed the necessity of poetic justice to punish dissoluteness in their plays. If a persistent rake was allowed to propagate his philosophical libertinism, "poetische Ungerechtigkeit" "poetic injustice" was likely to threaten the norm.
Shadwell's Epsom-Wells may be regarded as a chief instigator of an excessive libertinism which is not questioned. The play, significantly, ends with a divorce rather than the standard device of a marriage.
However, the number of persistent rakes continued to grow, together with an upsurge in cuckolding action, and, between andnot all persistent rakes are punished satirically.
As a consequence, future emphasis was no longer on libertinistic adventures but on the conversion and domestication of the dashing young men. D'Urfey's ' Love for Money and Cibber 's Love's Last Shift are moralising plays and pave the way for the sentimental comedy of the early eighteenth century."The Portrait" (Russian: Портрет) is a short story by Nikolai Gogol, originally published in the short story collection Arabesques in thoughts on “ 11 Secrets to Writing an Effective Character Description ” EddieTheWriter May 28, at am.
Hey guys! This was a very useful article, wish I had come across this when I was writing a story. Instead, I went and made an app that helps create character descriptions modeled after successful TV show and movie characters. Further reading. E. Beresford Chancellor () The Lives of the Rakes (6 vols).
Fergus Linnane () The Lives of the English timberdesignmag.com, Portrait. D. Squibb () The Art of Being a Rake in 21st Century Britain External links. The dictionary definition of rake at Wiktionary. Talking to the late John Hughes’s sons and Brat Pack favorites, David Kamp finds the writer-director was an amalgam of all his now classic characters.
All images and text on this site are ©AFD Studios, LLC and Jeff Hebert. You can use the character images you create however you like in your personal work, though a credit to timberdesignmag.com . In a historical context, a rake (short for rakehell, analogous to "hellraiser") was a man who was habituated to immoral conduct, particularly timberdesignmag.com, a rake was also prodigal, wasting his (usually inherited) fortune on gambling, wine, women and song, and incurring lavish debts in the process.
Comparable terms are "libertine" and "debauchee".