This anomaly is due to the abstraction of water from the Calder Intake to the Barnacre and Grizedale Lea reservoirs, grid-reference A reduce in water will make the channel width narrower.
In a waterfall, as water continues to fall over the edge, it erodes the bed of the channel at the base of the waterfall. A basin or depression is created, and sediment carried by the stream is deposited here. Depending on their hardness, the rock layers behind the falling water may also be eroded over time by the action of the water.
As these softer layers are cut into, the resistant layer under the bed of the stream ultimately loses support and falls into the water at the base of the waterfall.
When this occurs, the waterfall retreats farther upstream. Normally, over time, the stream will erode the resistant rock so the gradient of the channel is not as steep. The Geography coursework rivers gcse will be reduced to rapids, an area where water in the stream channel rushes downward over hard rocks.
The reduction of a major waterfall to rapids may take tens of thousands of years. Eventually, the rapids, too, will be eroded away. Other erosional features created by streams are canyons and V-shaped valleys. On plateaus and in mountains, a stream erodes a fairly narrow path through the landscape, often only as wide as its channel.
It does so because most of its erosional force is directed along its bed. As the stream erodes downward, a process referred to as downcutting, steep slopes remain on either side of the stream's channel. If the stream is cutting through a region composed of rocks that are highly resistant to erosion, a narrow, steep-walled canyon is created.
For further information, see the Canyon chapter.
If the rocks in the region are more susceptible to erosion, rockslides and other types of landslides gradually modify the steep slopes to form a V-shaped valley. For further information, see the Valley chapter. Depositional features In addition to bars and islands in braided streams and point bars in meandering streams, streams create larger features by depositing sediment.
Among these are floodplains, alluvial fans, and deltas.
When the flow of water in a stream becomes too high to be accommodated in the stream's channel, the water flows over the stream's banks and floods the surrounding land. As it does so, the water immediately slows down and drops its sediment load. Coarser sediment is deposited near the channel.
Over time, as the process is repeated over and over, the sediment forms mounds called natural levees along the stream's banks.
Finer sediment carried by the flood is spread farther away from the channel before it is finally deposited. The flat or gently sloping surface created by the repeated deposition of sediment along a stream is called the stream's floodplain.
A floodplain is widened as a stream meanders across a landscape. For further information, see the Floodplain chapter.
When a stream whose channel has been confined in a narrow valley or canyon in a highland area flows out into a broader, flatter valley or plain, its velocity and gradient suddenly decrease. No longer confined to a narrow channel, the water spreads farther as it moves away from the base of the highlands.
Large rocks and other heavy material are deposited first, followed by other material in decreasing size. As more water flows onto the valley and more sediment is deposited, a wide, fan-shaped pile known as an alluvial fan forms.
When a stream enters a body of standing water, such as an ocean or a lake, again there is a sudden decrease in velocity. The stream drops its sediment load in a deposit called a delta. Deltas build outward from a coastline, but will survive only if ocean currents are not strong enough to remove the sediment.
As the velocity of a stream decreases on entering the delta, the stream becomes choked with sediment, similar to what occurs in a braided stream channel.
Instead of braiding, however, the stream channel breaks into many smaller channels called distributaries that carry water and sediment to the delta's edges.
For further information, see the Delta chapter. Construction and destruction Water running down a slope becomes a stream when there is enough water to form a tiny rivulet with a channel to contain the water. In its early stage, a stream may carry water only after rain falls or snow melts.
In this instance, it is said to be an intermittent stream. In contrast, a permanent stream is one that has cut its valley deeply enough so that ground-water seeps into it and keeps it flowing between rainfalls. Beneath Earth's surface, water fills the pore spaces and openings in rocks. This water, which comes from rain or melted snow that is drawn downward through the soil by gravity, is known as groundwater.
At a certain level below ground, all the openings in the rocks are completely filled with groundwater. The upper surface of this saturated zone is known as the water table.IGCSE and GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) IB Geography Textbooks and Wider Reading and Viewing IB Geography Case Studies IB Core Themes - Patterns and Change IB Populations in Transition IGCSE Rivers and GCSE Rivers Specification: River processes Candidates should be able to.
A GCSE geography coursework in various schools is a specific requirement to pass the class. All you got to do to make is to know and follow some basic geography coursework writing policy. GCSE Geography Coursework will contain a series of sections or chapters. Feb 05, · GCSE Geography - Rivers Overview ArkVega.
Loading Unsubscribe from ArkVega? GCSE Geography Climatic Hazards Overview - Duration: ArkVega 13, views. GCSE Rivers Glossary. Abrasion: the pebbles being transported wear away the bed and banks of the river channel. Alluvium: rock particles (clay, silt, sand and gravel) deposited by a river.
Attrition: The particles are knocked about as they are transported, and they gradually become more rounded and reduced in size.. Base Level: the mouth of the river and the point where the gradient becomes zero.
Rivers. GCSE Geography. This section guides you through planning and carrying out a fieldwork investigation into rivers. Geography Coursework on Rivers Rivers can be a little tricky and getting the coursework done properly is more than trying. Whenever you have one of our professional writers take over, you can be assured that your grade will be great.