May 25,University of Delaware Spathius galinae has been approved for release to help control the emerald ash borer, an invasive beetle that has devastated ash tree populations across the US. USDA and University of Delaware With the emerald ash borer beetle devastating ash tree populations throughout the United States—from locations as far north as Massachusetts and as far south as Louisiana—solutions to help fight the insect are critical.
Buprestidae Overview The goldspotted oak borer GSOB is a buprestid beetle which is native to oak forests of Southeastern Arizona, and a closely related species Agrilus coxalisalmost identical in appearance, is found in Central Mexico, and Northern Guatemala.
SinceGSOB has contributed to the mortality of more than 80, trees over approximately 4, km2, and this infested area continues to increase as the GSOB population grows and spreads. In its native range, GSOB is not a pest. This may be due to efficient population control by natural enemies and natural levels of resistance by oak species that have co-evolved with GSOB.
Four years laterit was found attacking three species of oak in the Cleveland National Forest in San Diego county: Photos of these three oak species are shown in figures 1, 2, and 3 respectively. Oak trees are classified into three categories which include white oaks, red oaks and intermediate oaks.
These categories characterize three evolutionary lineages in Quercus, and are separated by their types of leaves, acorns, bark and wood. For example, white oaks have light grey or brown bark, while red oaks have dark grey, blackish or brown bark.
White oaks also have light brown or yellowish wood while red oaks have reddish wood. Intermediate oaks are typically transitional, having intermediate qualities, or those more like either the white or red oaks. GSOB seems to prefer red oaks, although it will occasionally feed on intermediate oaks, and almost never on white oaks.
Although elevated levels of oak mortality had been aerially mapped by the USDA Forest Service in the Cleveland National Forest sinceit was not known that GSOB was the cause of such mortality until when it was officially confirmed as the primary mortality agent.
The general belief until this time was that drought was the main contributing factor to the loss of so many oaks. Distribution Museum records from southeastern Arizona A. GSOB was first collected in California insuggesting a possible range expansion, because this attractive beetle had not been previously found in this state despite a long history of active survey work by professional and amateur entomologists.
Although the presence of GSOB in southern California could reflect a natural unassisted range expansion by native populations to the east and south, it is more likely that GSOB was introduced during the last ten years in oak firewood that originated from areas where this beetle is native perhaps somewhere in Arizona.
In addition to dying oaks, another major negative effect is monetary cost. Economic costs are due to the direct loss of valuable oak trees, especially landscape or heritage trees due to GSOB infestation, increased pest management monitoring and control and forest management costs removal of dead trees that can fuel wildfiresand emergency response costs removal of hazardous trees in public areas.
Finally, there is the cost due to the loss in property value. Therefore, towns such as Julian and Ramona, which are dominated by GSOB infested oak woodlands, are being significantly impacted by losses in property values. If affected property owners want to maintain their home values, they will have to replace their dead oaks which can cost thousands of dollars per replaced tree, or commence regular and costly pesticide applications to kill GSOB infestations to reduce the likelihood of future attacks.
Biodiversity is adversely affected due to the loss of habitat and food resources used by native animals such as acorn woodpeckers, mule deer, ground squirrels, and the arroyo toad.
Shading of sensitive riparian areas is being reduced which threatens water supplies and the existence of animals and plants that rely on this scarce resource.
Also, increasing numbers of dead oaks are significantly increasing the fuel load in these areas, which can increase the probability and severity of wildfires in these natural areas.
And lastly, there is a cost associated with the loss of aesthetic value because large swaths of dead oaks are ugly to look at and the attractiveness of these afflicted areas for hikers, photographers, and tourists is greatly diminished.
Although this cost is difficult to estimate, it is nevertheless present, and possibly quite high. They are white when first laid, but turn a brownish color within days, and hatch within days. In the lab, eggs have been observed to be laid individually on both artificial surfaces e.
Eggs have not been observed in the field because they are so small and difficult to find, but they are probably laid in bark crevices like other Agrilus species.
Biology Mature larvae are about 18 mm long and 3 mm wide Fig 5. They are legless, white, and have a long slender appearance. Larvae have a bulbous head with hardened mandibles which are used for boring into bark and phloem, and they possess two pincher-like spines at the tip of the abdomen.Cold hardiness of emerald ash borer and its biological control agents Research Issue.
New invasive insects are detected regularly in North America. CSU Extension - A division of the Office of Engagement. Providing trusted, practical education to help you solve problems, develop skills and build a better future.
Most of us sense that taking a walk in a forest is good for us. We take a break from the rush of our daily lives. We enjoy the beauty and peace of being in a natural setting. Now, research is showing that visiting a forest has real, quantifiable health benefits, both mental and physical.
Even five. The Goldspotted Oak Borer (Agrilus auroguttatus) Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)Overview. The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB) is a buprestid beetle which is native to oak forests of Southeastern Arizona, and a closely related species (Agrilus coxalis), almost identical in appearance, is found in Central Mexico, and Northern timberdesignmag.com , GSOB has contributed to the mortality of more.
The boxelder bug frequently becomes a nuisance pest around homes and buildings near plantings of the boxelder, Acer negundo. In heavily infested areas, they sometimes are associated with ash (Fraxinus spp.) and maple (Acer spp.). Emerald Ash Borer.
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was discovered as the cause of extensive ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality throughout southeastern Michigan in June Evidence suggests that A.
planipennis first entered Michigan from China in the s, presumably from solid wood packing materials used to transport manufactured .