Race, Crime, and Punishment Just as conscious and unconscious racial notions helped define the drug problem, they have also helped shape political and policy responses to that problem. The legislative history of federal crack sentencing laws, for example, provides reason "to suspect that regardless of the objectives Congress was pursuing, it would have shown more restraint in fashioning the crack penalties or more interest in amending them in ensuing years, if the penalties did not apply almost exclusively to blacks. Politicians have been able to reap the electoral rewards of endorsing harsh drug policies because the group that suffered most from those policies-black Americans-lacked the numbers to use the political process to secure a different strategy. It could have restricted prison to only the most serious drug offenders e.
At a time of increasing East-West tensions, Roosevelt used her enormous prestige and credibility with both superpowers to steer the drafting process toward its successful completion. Chang excelled in forging compromises when the committee seemed incapable on the verge of an impasse.
Malik, whose philosophy was firmly rooted in natural lawwas a major force in the debates surrounding key provisions and played a critical role in elucidating and refining basic conceptual issues.
The massive and systematic human rights abuses committed during World War IIincluding the Nazi genocide of Jew s, Roma Gypsiesand other groups, spurred the development of an international human rights instrument.
At the same time, the drafters of the UN Charter sought to highlight the interrelationship between war prevention and fundamental human rights.
Two key ethical considerations underscored the main tenets of the UDHR: The onset of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union and the resulting deterioration of the global political climate led to sharp ideological exchanges on comparative assessments of the human rights situations in the Soviet-bloc countries and in countries under colonial rule.
The disagreements underlying these exchanges eventually resulted in the abandonment of a plan for an international bill of rights, though they did not derail efforts to develop a nonbinding human rights declaration. The UDHR comprises 30 articles that contain a comprehensive listing of key civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights.
Articles 3 through 21 outline civil and political rights, which include the right against torturethe right to an effective remedy for human rights violations, and the right to take part in government.
Articles 22 through 27 detail economic, social, and cultural rights, such as the right to work, the right to form and to join trade unions, and the right to participate freely in the cultural life of the community. Because of the ideological fissures caused by the Cold War and the concomitant failure to develop a legally binding international human rights instrument, it became common to view civil and political rights independently of economic, social, and cultural rights, though this is a misinterpretation of both the letter and the spirit of the document.
For example, it is impossible for a society to fulfill its commitment to the right to education Article 26 without taking seriously its commitment to the right to seek, receive, and impart information Article Likewise, it is difficult to envisage the realization of the right to form and to join trade unions Article 23 without a commensurate realization of the right to peaceful assembly and association Article Yet, these obvious linkages were obscured by the selective use of human rights norms by the main adversaries in the Cold War.
Authoritarian states, which usually sought to protect themselves against what they considered interference in their internal affairs, approved of this feature of the declaration, and even some democratic countries initially worried about the potentially intrusive nature of the obligations that a legally binding document would impose.
Its inherent flexibility has offered ample room for new strategies to promote human rights and has allowed it to serve as a springboard for the development of numerous legislative initiatives in international human rights law, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, both of which were adopted in In addition, the UDHR has been reaffirmed in numerous resolutions passed by organs and agencies of the UN, and many countries have incorporated it into their national constitutions.
These developments have led many analysts to conclude that, despite its nonbinding status, its provisions have achieved a juridical status akin to that of norms of customary international law.
Indeed, it enunciates general moral principles applicable to everyone, thus universalizing the notion of a fundamental baseline of human well-being. Despite its shortcomings, including a preoccupation with the state as the main perpetrator of human rights violations—which has marginalized human rights problems stemming from socially and culturally sanctioned abusive behaviour and violence, whose perpetrators are often nonstate actors such as individuals, families, communitiesand other private institutions—the UDHR was and remains the key reference point for international human rights discourse.
More than any other instrument, the UDHR is responsible for making the notion of human rights nearly universally accepted.The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child Adopted 26 September, , League of Nations Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child.
By the present Declaration of the Rights of the Child, commonly known as "Declaration of Geneva," men and women of all nations, recognizing that mankind owes to the Child the best that it has to give, declare and accept it as their duty that, beyond and.
- - ' Steven T. Walther All rights reserved. Principle 9 The child shall be protected against all forms of neglect, cruelty and exploitation. Considering that one of the basic principles of the Charter of the United Nations is that of the dignity and equality inherent in all human beings, and that all Member States have pledged themselves to take joint and separate action in cooperation with the Organization to promote and encourage universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without.
Arctic: Change at the Top of the World, timberdesignmag.com, September This next clip (10 minutes, transcript) is also an extract from another Democracy Now timberdesignmag.com one is an interview by Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez with President Evo Morales of Bolivia in which they discuss indigenous rights and challenges.
A pocket-size booklet containing the complete text of these two core documents of American democracy, the Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence.