Clostridium difficile essay

Read now Diagnosis Diagnosing C. The doctor will ask when the symptoms began and discuss their severity. If the doctor suspects an infection, they may take a small sample of stool for analysis in a lab.

Clostridium difficile essay

September Introduction The human microbiome is composed of the microbes, as well as their genes and genomes, that live in and on the human body.


Scientists are discovering just how important these resident microbes are to our health and well-being, particularly with respect to the roles they play in maintaining our immune systems, contributing to the digestion of our food, and acting as a first line of defense against pathogens.

There are many diseases that may be the result of disturbed microbiomes; however, microbiome-based medical treatments and applications are on the horizon. The human microbiome is composed of bacteria, viruses, fungi, Clostridium difficile essay protozoa.

Our Other Genome Throughout most of human history we have felt at war with microbes. But if microbes are germs then how do we benefit from them? In fact, most of the microbes we come in contact with are not germs, but beneficial microbes that digest many things in our diet—like vegetables—that we could not digest without microbial enzymes, provide energy for our metabolism, make essential vitamins, and act as a first line of defense against potential pathogens i.

Education and Professional Development

Scientists believe that infants receive their first inoculum of microbes from their mothers during childbirth. The characteristics of human microbiota change over time in response to varying environmental conditions and life stages.

US National Library of Medicine. Diagram of the human body showing the relative abundances of various types of microbes in each region. Most of these microbes are growing in our large intestine, but each region of our body has its own distinct community of microbes living in or on it.

For example, we have a particular kind of microbial community that prefers to grow on our skin or in our nose. Our mouths have a rich mixture of microbes, with specific microbes that prefer our teeth versus those that prefer our gums.

Even though your tongue is in constant contact with the roof of your mouth, the microbes growing on the roof of your mouth are, in fact, very different from those growing on your tongue. Bathing, washing your hair, washing your hands, and brushing your teeth remove some microbes, but they eventually grow back.

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile): Causes, symptoms, and treatment

In other words, each of us supports a unique group of microbes that are ours and ours alone. Routine practices, including the use of antibiotics, may alter the human microbiome by reducing nontargeted bacteria and creating antibiotic resistant strains.

Good Bugs Gone Bad? Antibiotic use is just one example of a common medical practice that may be altering the human microbiome by reducing, removing, or changing fundamental elements. Antibiotics have been in broad use for treating infectious diseases in humans for over 70 years and are also used at subtherapeutic levels to stimulate meat production in livestock.

As with vaccines, antibiotics have proven to be a very important medical advance, effectively eliminating many infectious diseases that have plagued human history. Today, as a result of antibiotics and vaccines, children do not die of the infectious diseases that killed them even 50 years ago.

However, routine use of antibiotics may cause collateral damage to our microbial flora in two ways: The evolution of antibiotic resistance through natural selection. Antibiotic resistance develops when bacteria are exposed to sublethal doses of an antibiotic that do not kill them but, instead, allow them to develop genetic resistance against the antibiotic.

Examples of autoimmune diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, diabetes and celiac disease. The current line of thinking is that loss of normal microbiome constituents through antibiotic use may remove the necessary trigger for normal immune system development.

As a result, an underdeveloped immune system might possibly allow autoimmune diseases to develop. Currently, much research is being conducted to better understand the relationship between the human microbiome and autoimmune diseases, and to find better treatments and cures.

Clostridium difficile essay

Beyond antibiotic use, what might be other possible impacts of modern societal practices on the human microbiome? Whether this hypothesis is supported awaits rigorous scientific testing, but it does help frame the question of why we are currently seeing epidemics in autoimmune diseases that have been relatively rare throughout human history.

Perhaps disturbances to our microbiome are key to understanding why these diseases are increasing; in turn, this understanding may lead to the treatment and, ultimately, prevention of such diseases. Our microbiomes are quite dynamic over our lifetimes and change with respect to both the numbers of microbes and their membership.May 29,  · Clindamycin is indeed a prescription-only antibiotic that we don’t use lightly even in the hospital, where it’s known to set off potentially deadly Clostridium difficile diarrhea after killing.

Did the physician pull the bottles from the boxes, and then put the bottles in a bag first without the side effect sheets? Many doctors often tell patients "Oh, don't worry about the side effects.

It's nothing." The safety of NEXIUM was evaluated in over 15, patients (aged years) in. This Viewpoint discusses the factors contributing to the estimated $20 billion annual cost of joint replacements in the United States, and proposes ways to realize cost savings without harming care quality or patient outcomes, including reduction of inappropriate procedures, limits to payment variation and device pricing, and use of outpatient rather than surgical center settings.

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. Signs and symptoms often include abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, and weight loss. Other complications may occur outside the gastrointestinal tract and .

Clostridium difficile essay

Forward: Although this depression treatment by magnesium essay was written originally to address the role of magnesium as a depression treatment, the role of magnesium deficiency as cause of vast other morbidity and mortality is also addressed.

Published: Mon, 5 Dec Mr. Jones is a 72 year old Gentleman who was cared for in an acute medical setting, to ensure patients confidentiality is maintained (NMC) his name has been changed.

Education and Professional Development