Of all the complexities and unanswered questions in the study of human behaviour, this question may be the most difficult. People are enormously complex; their abilities and interests and attitudes are diverse. Personality appears to be a result of both influences. Additionally, today we recognize another factor - the situation.
Abstract The concept of personality has recently begun to attract a great deal of interest in behavioural ecology. However, there is also a large and mature literature on personality within human psychology. These two bodies of work have developed independently and at present make rather little reference to one another.
The current paper has two main objectives. First, we seek to acquaint behavioural ecologists with the principal ideas and issues found in the human personality psychology literature. Second, we explore how ideas from the behavioural ecology literature might help advance research in human personality psychology.
We suggest strong potential for convergence between the two literatures in the near future. Common themes of this future unified science of personality include the conception of personality traits as reaction norms, a commitment to the importance of direct measurement of behaviour, investigation of both proximate and ultimate explanations for personality variation, and a concern with the impact of personality variation on survival and reproductive success.
Introduction Animal personality has begun to receive a great deal of attention from behavioural ecologists, as the papers in this issue attest. Personality in the behavioural ecology henceforth, BE literature refers to consistent differences in behaviour among individuals from the same species or population, even if they experience the same ecological conditions.
For example, we can identify the proximate genetic or environmental causes of adult differences in phenotype. We can also ask how natural selection acts on the population distribution of phenotypes, often maintaining diversity through balancing selection pressures.
Finally, we can ask why selection causes different phenotypic traits to come to covary, when other patterns of covariance would be equally possible. The concept of personality is not an original innovation of BE, though.
Within human psychology, there has been a tradition of research in personality henceforth HPP, human personality psychology stretching back at least years. Despite this, the two literatures at present remain rather unintegrated see van Oers Our aim in this paper is thus to introduce these two research areas, independently evolved but with much common potential interest, to one another.
We will hope to show BE researchers that the methodological traditions and explanatory concerns of HPP have been somewhat different from those familiar to behavioural ecologists, but that the HPP literature nonetheless contains much of relevance for them.
We will also argue that the BE literature provides inspiration for clarifying certain issues within HPP.
We conclude, optimistically, that BE and HPP are converging towards a notion of personality as behavioural reaction norm, and that this allows the two fields to define and pursue a unified set of questions.
Finally, we conclude optimistically that there is potential for conceptual unification of the BE and HPP literatures in the future. A brief overview of human personality research The impulse behind research in HPP begins with the simple observation that the people we meet are different from one another in their behaviour.
More than that, they are characteristically different. Such observations are the foundation of HPP research, and seem straightforward enough. However, an outsider plunging into the HPP literature is confronted by apparent disunity. There are several different traditions of research, which often criticize and sometimes even ignore each other, and each forefronts different constructs.
Where such disagreement is found in science, it is often the case that different researchers simply have different objectives.
We will thus organize our review of some of the major developments in HPP around the different objectives that different parts of the literature pursue. The five objectives we cover are basic descriptive work; study of proximate mechanisms; identification of genetic and environmental influences; fitness consequences of personality; and, finally, comparative personality research.
Unlike personality research in BE, which tends to focus on particular behavioural dimensions that are most salient in domains of interest e. The most established attempts to comprehensively describe personality structure are based on the lexicographic approach.
This assumes that every major behavioural dimension in humans should be reflected in the vocabulary people use to talk about other people or themselves. Factor analysis can then be employed to extract the much smaller number of personality dimensions required to describe variation in ratings in the samples John et al.
Much effort is expended on exactly which factorial solutions are preferred, and what each of the dimensions should be called e. It is this tradition of research that has led to the five-factor model of personality.
For example, Extraversion encompasses traits like sociability, boldness and positive emotionality, while Neuroticism encompasses traits like anxiousness, depressiveness and irritability.
An interesting difference between the HPP and BE literatures is that the phenotypic and genetic covariance structure of personality variables in humans has generally been found to be much the same across cultures Yamagata et al. It is as yet unclear whether this reflects a genuine difference between humans and some other species, or whether the methods used are simply so different in the two cases as to produce different patterns of results.
Whereas BE studies often identify a single personality dimension and explore its consequences in minute detail, HPP typically studies several e. HPP has also identified a wider range of different personality constructs overall.
Whether this is because of unique characteristics of humans, because human researchers can gather more data about each of their participants especially when using questionnairesor simply that the goals of the enterprise tend to be somewhat different, remains to be seen.
Two other findings from the descriptive HPP literature are noteworthy. Firstly, human personality clearly varies along quantitative dimensions.
Splitting samples into discrete groups according to their personality is done, if at all, for statistical purposes only, but the underlying distributions indicate continuity.
Attempts to use the internal organization of multiple personality dimensions to identify discrete personality types e.Personality psychology is the study of human personality and how it varies among individuals and populations.
Social learning theory believes that personality and behavior are determined by an individual’s cognition about the world around them. the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart—a well-known study of the genetic basis for.
chapter 11 personality. STUDY. PLAY. personality. important to stress that no single theory can adequately explain all of the aspects of human personality. psychoanalytic. importance of unconscious processes and childhood experiences a psuedoscience that claims to assess personality, social, and occupational attributes based on a.
The anatomy and physiology of personality human brain has excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, and important aspects of a person’s personality are determined by the balance between these mechanisms –Excitatory mechanisms •Cause one to be awake, aroused, and alert. Explanations for personality can focus on a variety of influences, ranging from genetic explanations for personality traits to the role of the environment and experience in shaping an individual's personality.
Personality Essay Every human being has a personality that will determine the limits of success. In order to understand what personality is let first define personality.
According to the dictionary the definition of personality is the stable difference between people in the social, emotional and . CHAPTER 15 PERSONALITY most importantly concerning the use of factor analysis to discover traits and the number of traits to be used in the description of personality.
The Five-Factor Theory of Personality - FIVE-FACTOR MODEL - An emerging consensus among trait theorists suggesting five basic factors to human personality: neuroticism.